Saturday, May 23, 2020

Zoos The Federal Animal Welfare Act - 1167 Words

Zoos often claim they are modern day arks, providing a safe, comfortable environment; making animals happy and content; educating the world about wildlife; and saving species from the brink of extinction while at the same time providing vital research into the lives of animals. There is a moral presumption against keeping wild, defenseless animals in captivity. The zoo is a prison for animals who have been sentenced without a trial. Either we have duties to animals or we do not. I feel that we have a duty and responsibility to animals and need to provide them with respect not neglect. Living conditions are crucial to an animal’s survival. Captivity cannot begin to replicate what it means to be free. Living in an enclosed prison†¦show more content†¦Ã¢â‚¬Å"Many animal rights advocates and even some conservationists argue that what zoos teach is not a love of animals but rather the acceptance of human domination of nature† (Rudy 124). Keeping animals in zo os sends the message that animals are commodities and that humans are justified in locking them up. It is hard to perceive how providing entertainment could possibly justify keeping wild animals in captivity. A zoo isn’t the best place for the conservation of animals. If people want to see wild animals in real life, they can observe wildlife in the wild or visit a sanctuary. A true sanctuary does not buy, sell, or breed animals, but takes in unwanted exotic pets, surplus animals from zoos or injured wildlife that can no longer survive in the wild. Removing animals from the wild will further endanger the wild population because the remaining animals will be less genetically diverse and will have more difficulty finding mates. Also, â€Å"the lack of genetic diversity among captive animals also means that surviving members of endangered species have traits very different from their conspecifics in the wild† (Jamieson 172). Lions are a popular zoo animal, but the ma jority â€Å"are ‘generic’ animals of hybrid or unknown sub specific status, and therefore of little or no value inShow MoreRelatedZoos And Animal Purposes Of Zoos1727 Words   |  7 PagesZoos and similar facilities that publicly exhibit wild animals have existed throughout history, beginning as far back as Ancient Egypt. In the past, animals were kept in small cages and used by rulers to display their wealth and satisfy the curiosity and fascination surrounding wild creatures. Society’s views about zoos have changed. No longer are people willing to view animals pacing nervously back and forth behind bars. Instead, the public has begun to express concern for the welfare of the animalsRead MoreZoos And Conservation For Animals1574 Words   |  7 Pageswild animals in our world. However, is keeping wild animals in captivity really the best way to take care of them? A zoo or aquarium is an establishment that maintains a collection of wild animals, in enclosures, to display to the public. The American public loves to visit zoos and aquariums because they believe it’s educational and they’ll be able to see animals from a variety of continents. The concepts of zoos and aquariums have been around for centuries and the standard of care for animals hasRead MoreThe Future Of Zoos During The World Of Activists Attacks1495 Words   |  6 PagesThe Future of Zoos In the Midst of Activists’ Attacks In an increasingly threatening environmental crisis, zoos are participating in the conservation of species. The biodiversity of the animal and plant worlds is being deeply affected, on the one hand by the disruption of ecosystems caused mainly by climate change and deforestation, and on the other hand, by the globalization of trade, travel, transport, and tourism. These two factors are increasingly reducing animals’ habitats and endangering manyRead MorePersuasive Essay On Animal Cruelty1373 Words   |  6 PagesIf animals could talk, what would they say? They would stand up for themselves. As you read these, another innocent animal is being abused, neglected, or being harmed in some other way. Animal cruelty is wrong and happening all over the world although one may not notice. Animals in zoos and circuses are abused. They are used for testing, although there are many other alternatives. Companies use them for their leather and fur products. Circuses force them to do tricks and keep them in cages. ThereRead MoreIn An Increasingly Threatening Environmental Crisis, Zoos1752 Words   |  8 Pagesenvironmental crisis, zoos are participating in the conservation of species. The biodiversity of the animal and plant worlds is being deeply affected, on the one hand by the disruption of ecosystems caused mainly by climate change and deforestation, and on the other hand, by the globalization of trade, travel, transport, and tourism. These two factors are increasingly reducing animals’ habitats and endangering many species (Keulartz 336). The evolution of the preservation role of zoos precipitated theRead MoreExotic Animals1518 Words   |  7 PagesAndrea Davis Mrs. Smith ENGL 1101 15 November 2011 Exotic Animals Are More than Just Pets The exotic animal trade is a growing industry in which exotic animals are bred, sold, and traded in massive amounts. Millions of exotic animals are being kept in private residences, small roadside zoos, and traveling wild animal exhibits. Sadly, beautiful and majestic animals are being held captive in unfortunate living conditions. They are being deprived the enrichment and companionship that they requireRead MoreThe Cruelty Of Animals And Animals1945 Words   |  8 Pages Tons of people in the world that love animals and enjoy having their company. This is why most people have pets around their household. With these pets we often train them to do special tricks for example with dogs, the classic ‘shake’ or ‘rollover’ is something owners love seeing. With every new trick that they learn, we give them treats and lots of love. With the treat and love that we give our pets, they feel loved and happy, maintaining their health and happiness and that also makes the ownersRead MoreShould Animals Be Banned?1742 Words   |  7 PagesShould the Use of Animals in Circuses Be Banned? People have been flocking to see the dancing animals at the circus for ages, but how much do you really know about what goes on behind the scenes? The use of animals in the circus has a long history dating all the way back to ancient Rome. In fact, the first established circus in history, Circus Maximus, used animals. Even in those ancient times, the use of animals to entertain humans proved to be a very lucrative business. For the people that attendRead MoreAnimal Experimentation Should Not Be Allowed1631 Words   |  7 Pages100 million animals are poisoned, blinded, and killed every year in the United States in outdated product tests for cosmetics, personal-care products, household-cleaning products, and even fruit juices? It is said that every three seconds an animal dies while being held in laboratories. Animals are living creatures, who deserve to be more than just a science experiment. Animal experimentation should not be allowed. Whether it is called animal testing, animal experimentation or animal researchRead MoreAnimal Welfare Act Of 1966. Before 1966, Almost Of Animals,1660 Words   |  7 PagesAnimal Welfare Act of 1966 Before 1966, almost of animals, family pets as well, were being taken away by thieves and burglars because a lot of laboratories were paying others to do the messed up dirty work all so they could test on them with all sorts of chemicals. Between 1908-1973, President Lyndon B. Johnson saw this and the heard cries and sorrow of the people and didn’t agree with what was going on. On August 24th, 1966 President Johnson created a nameless act in order to ensure and protect

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Ancient Dancing Girl of Mohenjo-Daro

The Dancing Girl of Mohenjo-Daro is what generations of besotted archaeologists have named a 10.8 centimeter (4.25 inch) tall copper-bronze statuette found in the ruins of Mohenjo Daro. That city is one of the most important sites of the Indus Civilization, or more accurately, the Harappan Civilization (2600-1900 BC) of Pakistan and northwestern India. The Dancing Girl figurine was sculpted using the lost wax (cire perdue) process, which involves making a mold and pouring molten metal into it. Made about 2500 BC, the statuette was found in the remains of a small house in the southwestern quarter of Mohenjo Daro by Indian archaeologist D. R. Sahni [1879-1939] during his 1926-1927 field season at the site. The Dancing Girl Figurine The figurine is a naturalistic free-standing sculpture of a nude woman, with small breasts, narrow hips, long legs and arms, and a short torso. She wears a stack of 25 bangles on her left arm. She has very long legs and arms compared to her torso; her head is tilted slightly backward and her left leg is bent at the knee. On her right arm are four bangles, two at the wrist, two above the elbow; that arm is bent at the elbow, with her hand on her hip. She wears a necklace with three large pendants, and her hair is in a loose bun, twisted in a spiral fashion and pinned in place at the back of her head. Some scholars suggest that the Dancing Girl statuette is a portrait of a real woman. Individuality of the Dancing Girl Although there have been literally thousands of figurines recovered from Harappan sites, including over 2,500 at Harappa alone, the vast majority of figurines are terracotta, made from fired clay. Only a handful of Harappan figurines are carved from stone (such as the famous priest-king figure) or, like the dancing lady, of lost-wax copper bronze. Figurines are an elaborate class of representational artifact found in many ancient and modern human societies. Human and animal figurines can give insight into concepts of sex, gender, sexuality and other aspects of social identity. That insight is important for us today because many ancient societies left no decipherable written language. Although the Harappans had a written language, no modern scholar has been able to decipher the Indus Script to date. Metallurgy and the Indus Civilization A recent survey of the use of copper-based metals used in Indus civilization sites (Hoffman and Miller 2014) found that most of the classic Harappan aged objects made of copper-bronze are vessels (jars, pots, bowls, dishes, pans, scale pans) formed from sheet copper; tools (blades from sheet copper; chisels, pointed tools, axes and adzes) manufactured by casting; and ornaments (bangles, rings, beads, and decorative-headed pins) by casting. Hoffman and Miller found that copper mirrors, figurines, tablets, and tokens are relatively rare compared to these other artifact types. There are many more stone and ceramic tablets than those made of copper-based bronze. The Harappans made their bronze artifacts using a variety of blends, alloys of copper with tin and arsenic, and varying lesser amounts of zinc, lead, sulfur, iron, and nickel. Adding zinc to copper makes an object brass rather than bronze, and some of the earliest brasses on our planet were created by the Harappans. Researchers Park and Shinde (2014) suggest that the variety of blends used in different products was the result of fabrication requirements and the fact that pre-alloyed and pure copper was traded into the Harappan cities rather than produced there. The lost wax method used by Harappan metallurgists involved first carving the object out of wax, then covering it in wet clay. Once the clay was dried, holes were bored into the mold and the mold was heated, melting the wax. The empty mold was then filled with a melted mixture of copper and tin. After that cooled, the mold was broken, revealing the copper-bronze object. Possible African Origins The ethnicity of the woman depicted in the figure has been a somewhat controversial subject over the years since the figurine was discovered. Several scholars such as ECL During Casper have suggested that the lady looks African. Recent evidence for Bronze Age trade contact with Africa has been found at Chanhu-Dara, another Harappan Bronze Age site, in the form of pearl millet, which was domesticated in Africa about 5,000 years ago. There is also at least one burial of an African woman at Chanhu-Dara, and it is not impossible that the Dancing Girl was a portrait of a woman from Africa. However, the figurines hairdressing is a style worn by Indian women today and in the past, and her armful of bangles is similar to a style worn by contemporary Kutchi Rabari tribal women. British Archaeologist Mortimer Wheeler, one of many scholars besotted by the statuette, recognized her as a woman from the Baluchi region. Sources Clark SR. 2003. Representing the Indus Body: Sex, Gender, Sexuality, and the Anthropomorphic Terracotta Figurines from Harappa. Asian Perspectives 42(2):304-328. Clark SR. 2009. Material Matters: Representation and Materiality of the Harappan Body. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 16:231–261. Craddock PT. 2015. The metal casting traditions of South Asia: Continuity and innovation. Indian Journal of History of Science 50(1):55-82. During Caspers ECL. 1987. Was the dancing girl from Mohenjo-daro a Nubian? Annali, Instituto Oriental di Napoli 47(1):99-105. Hoffman BC, and Miller HM-L. 2014. Production and Consumption of Copper-Base Metals in the Indus Civilization. In: Roberts BW, and Thornton CP, editors. Archaeometallurgy in Global Perspective: Methods and Syntheses. New York, NY: Springer New York. p 697-727. Kennedy KAR, and Possehl GL. 2012. Were There Commercial Communications between Prehistoric Harappans and African Populations? Advances in Anthropology 2(4):169-180. Park J-S, and Shinde V. 2014. Characterization and comparison of the copper-base metallurgy of the Harappan sites at Farmana in Haryana and Kuntasi in Gujarat, India. Journal of Archaeological Science 50:126-138. Possehl GL. 2002. The Indus Civilization: A Contemporary Perspective. Walnut Creek, California: Altamira Press. Sharma M, Gupta I, and Jha PN. 2016. From Caves to Miniatures: Portrayal of Woman in Early Indian Paintings. Chitrolekha International Magazine on Art and Design 6(1):22-42. Shinde V, and Willis RJ. 2014. A New Type of Inscribed Copper Plate from Indus Valley (Harappan) Civilisation. Ancient Asia 5(1):1-10. Sinopoli CM. 2006. Gender and archaeology in south and southwest Asia. In: Milledge Nelson S, editor. Handbook of Gender in Archaeology. Lanham, Maryland: Altamira Press. p 667-690. Srinivasan S. 2016. Metallurgy of zinc, high-tin bronze and gold in Indian antiquity: Methodological aspects. Indian Journal of History of Science 51(1):22-32.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Biopure Hbs Summary Free Essays

Andrew Walters 3/22/12 Biopure Biopure Corporation specializes in blood substitutes for transfusion patients, both in the veterinary market and the human market. However, in 1998, Biopure faced the monumental decision of whether to begin selling Oxyglobin, a blood substitute, to the veterinary market or to wait until Hemoglobin, a blood substitute for the human market, became available for sale. The problem is whether or not the company should launch Oxyglobin before Hemoglobin is FDA-approved or wait until after Hemoglobin is approved and released into the human market. We will write a custom essay sample on Biopure Hbs Summary or any similar topic only for you Order Now I would recommend that they release Oxyglobin immediately rather than wait for Hemoglobin’s FDA-approval. The reasoning behind this decision follows from an analysis of both the veterinary blood substitute market and the human blood substitute market. I would recommend this because Hemopure is still at least 2 years away from FDA approval, Blood substitute competitors have a more established brand and more money; success of Oxyglobin would help Biopure compete against these factors, and failure of other drugs makes introduction of Hemopure a financial risk. There will be many decisions that will have to be made as a result of this. Biopure executives will have to make is what price to charge per unit of Oxyglobin. The veterinary market is small and price-sensitive. The two surveys that Biopure conducted in 1997 to test the sensitivity of the animal blood substitute market found that 25 percent and 80 percent of veterinarians would try Oxyglobin in noncritical and critical cases, respectively, if the product was priced at $150. Therefore, Biopure should charge $150 per unit of Oxyglobin. In conclusion, I recommend that Biopure introduce Oxyglobin into the veterinary blood substitute market at a price of $150 per unit in order to gain respect and brand awareness in the blood substitute market and to provide a source of income for Biopure while they await FDA approval for Hemopure. (Ref. http://hstrial- laurendecker. homestead. com/biopurecasestudy) How to cite Biopure Hbs Summary, Essay examples

Saturday, May 2, 2020

Impact of Hand Hygiene on Maintaining Patient Safety;

Question: Discuss about the Impact of Hand Hygiene on Maintaining Patient Safety. Answer: Maintaining Patient Safety through Hand Hygiene Hand hygiene is a key aspect in ensuring the patient's safety and curbing the transference of germs within the hospital environment. One of the major ways in which pathogens in the hospital environment are transferred from one patient to another is in the hands of the healthcare workers like the nurses (Abdella, Tefera Alene, 2014). Most reports indicate that improved hand hygiene among the healthcare workers is related to a decrease in infection rates (Graves, Page, Martin Barnett, 2016). During the interaction of the healthcare workers and the patients, there are situations whereby hand hygiene is not observed and therefore it threatens the safety of the patients health. It is the nurses responsibility to ensure that they are able to manage this situation appropriately when they arise. This paper will examine the relationship between hand hygiene and the patients safety and provide an example of a safety incidence that occurred in a patient together with the nurses role in managi ng the risk discussed. Infections acquired within the hospital results in an increase in morbidity and health care costs (Luangasanatip, Hongsuwan Cooper, 2015). This usually happens by through transference of germs between the patients through the hands of the healthcare workers. Hand hygiene has been proven to be an effective way of reducing these infections that occur from the interaction between the patients and the healthcare workers (Marimuthu, Pittet Harbarth, 2014). However, this is only effective if the workers are willing to comply with the handwashing requirements before and after attending to the patients. Healthcare workers are usually in contact with the patients and the equipment used in the treatment and the cleaning of hands ensures that they prevent the spread of illness. The spread of germs from one patient to another threatens the safety of the patients because these may lead to the patient developing additional illnesses from the extra pathogens they are exposed to (Murni Soenarto, 2014). This will also increase the seriousness of the patients condition as these germs that are transferred from another patient could worsen the existing condition of the patient. Maintaining hand hygiene is an important factor in reducing illnesses within the hospital environment. Hand hygiene entails washing hands or disinfecting them with the use of medicated soap or alcohol. Soap that does not contain disinfectant will not be effective in ensuring hand hygiene as it lacks the proper elements for keeping the hand's germ-free. Alcohol is usually the preferred antiseptic solution since it contains strong antimicrobial elements and its also a faster way of disinfection since it dries faster making it easier for the nurse to work efficiently from work patient to the other (Nair, Siraj Raghunath, 2014). Handwashing with antiseptic has to be done before and after caring for a patient. Those who may not be in direct contact with the patients should also practice good hand hygiene as they also play an important role in the patient's wellbeing (Wetzker, Pilarski Reichardt, 2016) An example of such staff is the staff within the hospitals who prepare food for the patients. As a nurse, there are situations that may arise whereby hand hygiene may pose a threat to the patients safety. In my practice as a nurse I witnessed a nurse who did not practice hand hygiene when she was dressing the wounds of a certain patient and on her way out she noticed another patient who was uncomfortable on their bed and went ahead to assist them to get into a comfortable sleeping position. In doing this, she touched this patient without doing any hand hygiene immediately after she had touched another patient. By doing this, she transferred the germs she got from the first patient to the second patient, therefore, putting the second patient at risk. The germs she picked up from the first patient may be transferred to the second patients skin and cause an infection. Through this, the patients safety is threatened as they are most likely to contract a new disease or experience an increase in the seriousness of the condition they are suffering from. In future, if such a situation was to arise whereby I am just from attending to a patient and I notice that another patient requires my help, I would first consider disinfecting my hands before touching them. In case there was another nurse around in a better position to do that, I would ask him or her to attend to the patient first as I ensure that I clean my hands first. It is important as a nurse to always prioritize hand hygiene while dealing with patients and this should be the first consideration before coming into contact with a patient (Smiddy, O'Connell Creedon, 2015). Before attending to my patients I would ensure that I disinfect my hands first and then afterward I would also ensure that I wash my hands with disinfectant to get rid of any germs that have been picked up from previous patients. A registered nurse has the responsibility to ensure that the patient is safe in the course of their treatment. In the case above, it is the nurses responsibility to manage. Nurses spend the most time with the patients and they are supposed to ensure the patient's safety by detecting any errors, identifying near misses, understanding the care processes, and identifying any weaknesses that exist within the system that may threaten the safety of the patient (Shinde Mohite, 2014). In the above situation, the nurse needed to have a better understanding of the care processes in relation to hand hygiene as this would enable the nurse to be vigilant. In understanding the care processes the nurse would also be able to identify the proper action to take after realizing the mistake she made by not putting into consideration hand hygiene. Therefore, it is the weaknesses in the hospital system that may hinder the ability of the nurse to ensure the safety of their patients (White Brain, 2015). The nurses have a responsibility of adhering to the system within the hospitals that have been put I place to ensure the safety of patients (Srigley Garber, 2015). However, these systems sometimes limit the nurses ability to provide the patients with the right healthcare that will ensure their safety. In this case, it is the nurses responsibility to ensure that they notify the hospital of the shortcomings of the systems put in place to optimize the quality of service (White, Jimmieson Martin, 2015). Using the incident that was mentioned above whereby the nurse touched another patient immediately after attending to a previous patient without the proper hand hygiene, a convenient system would have been effective in preventing this. A convenient system that would ensure this is a one whereby the nurses have individual sanitizers with a disinfectant that they can keep even in their pockets. Alternatively, disinfectant points can be strategically placed throughout the hospital to ensure that they are easily accessible at each point. If the nurse had the disinfectant within reach, it would have been easier to practice good health hygiene since its part of them. In conclusion, infections account for approximately 80,000 deaths per year in the United States alone. According to the WHO, between 5% percent and 10% of patients in developed countries acquire health care-associated infections and 15%-40% of patients in critical care are thought to be affected by the Health Care-associated Infections. However, these infections can be prevented successfully through hand hygiene. There exists evidence that with hand antisepsis, Health Care-associated Infections incidences are greatly reduced and it is, therefore, a very important issue as hand hygiene ensures patient safety. it is well established that indeed hand hygiene is a contributing factor to the patients health. The health workers have the responsibility of ensuring that their patients are kept safe and that they provide quality health service and an important way of ensuring this is through ensuring good hand hygiene. Situations arise whereby the patients are at risk because of poor hand hyg iene among the health workers and the nurses have to ensure they play their role in managing any risks faced by the patients. The incidence that was highlighted is just among the incidences that threaten the patient's safety due to poor hand hygiene. It is important for the healthcare workers to maintain good hand hygiene to ensure the safety of their patients. References Abdella, N. M., Tefera, Alene, K. A. (2014). Hand hygiene compliance and associated factors among health care providers in Gondar University Hospital, Gondar, North West Ethiopia. BMC Public Health, 14(1), 96. Graves, N., Page, K., Martin, E., Barnett, A. G. (2016). Cost-effectiveness of a national initiative to improve hand hygiene compliance using the outcome of healthcare associated staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia. PloS one, 11(2), e0148190. Luangasanatip, N., Hongsuwan, M. Cooper, B. S. (2015). Comparative efficacy of interventions to promote hand hygiene in hospital: systematic review and network meta-analysis. bmj, 351, h3728. Marimuthu, K., Pittet, D., Harbarth, S. (2014). The effect of improved hand hygiene on nosocomial MRSA control. Antimicrobial resistance and infection control, 3(1), 34. Murni, I. K., Soenarto, Y. (2014). Reducing hospital-acquired infections and improving the rational use of antibiotics in a developing country: an effectiveness study. Archives of disease in childhood, archdischild-2014. Nair, S. S., Siraj, M. A., Raghunath, P. (2014). Knowledge, attitude, and practice of hand hygiene among medical and nursing students at a tertiary health care centre in Raichur, India. ISRN preventive medicine, 2014. Smiddy, M. P., O'Connell, R., Creedon, S. A. (2015). Systematic qualitative literature review of health care workers' compliance with hand hygiene guidelines. American journal of infection control, 43(3), 269-274. Shinde, M. B., Mohite, V. R. (2014). A study to assess knowledge, attitude and practices of five moments of hand hygiene among nursing staff and students at a tertiary care hospital at Karad. International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), 3(2), 311-321. Srigley, J. A. Garber, G. (2015). Applying psychological frameworks of behaviour change to improve healthcare worker hand hygiene: a systematic review. Journal of Hospital Infection, 91(3), 202-210. White, K. M., Jimmieson, N. L. Martin, E. (2015). Using a theory of planned behaviour framework to explore hand hygiene beliefs at the 5 critical moments among Australian hospital-based nurses. BMC health services research, 15(1), 59. White, K. M. Brain, D. (2015). Understanding the determinants of Australian hospital nurses hand hygiene decisions following the implementation of a national hand hygiene initiative. Health education research, 30(6), 959-970. Wetzker, W., Pilarski, G. Reichardt, C. (2016). Compliance with hand hygiene: reference data from the national hand hygiene campaign in Germany. Journal of Hospital Infection, 92(4), 328-331.

Tuesday, March 24, 2020

Physical Theatre Essay Example

Physical Theatre Essay Physical Theatre History: * Physical theatre is a catch-all term to describe any performance that pursues storytelling through primary physical means * The term â€Å"physical theatre† has been applied to performances consisting mainly of: 1. Mime 2. Contemporary dance 3. Theatrical clowning and other physical comedy 4. Some forms of puppetry 5. Theatrical acrobatics * Modern physical theatre has grown from a variety of origins.Mime and theatrical clowning schools such as L’Ecole Jacques Lecoq Paris, have had a big influence on many modern expressions of Physical Theatre. * Another tradition started with the very famous French master  Etienne Decroux  (father of  corporeal mime). Decrouxs aim was to create a theatre based on the physicality of the actor allowing the creation of a more  metaphorical theatre. This tradition has grown and corporeal mime is now taught in many major theatrical schools. Legacy: Physical theatre had become such a big phenomenon today, being shown in movie such as â€Å"Stomp the Yard† and â€Å"Step Up† as well as huge worldwide productions such as â€Å"Wicked†, â€Å"Cirque de Solei† and â€Å"Hairspray† * We are the building block of the movement of physical theatre.Techniques: * Important theatre directions such as Vsevolod Meyerhold,  Jerzy Grotowski,  Eugenio Barba,  Ariane Mnouchkine  and  Tadashi Suzuki  all explored and developed a variety of intense training techniques for their actors, that were intended to liberate actors and audiences from boring and unstimulating performances. They argued that a performing body should be an instrument of expression that has unique rhythms and patterns that must be amplified, developed and mastered before a performance can be viewed as effective. * They also advocated a variety of training regimes and exercises to develop what they believed were important connections between the communication of physical and emotional tr uth in actors and many of their suggestions have been taken up by acting schools in a number of countries.

Friday, March 6, 2020

Essay on Wireless Security Policy

Essay on Wireless Security Policy Essay on Wireless Security Policy Essay on Wireless Security PolicyWireless Security Policy OverviewThis wireless security policy pertains to all employees and to all other persons affiliated with Local Commercial Banking Organization (LCBO). This document outlines the purpose and scope of wireless security policy at LCBO, describes the applicability of this policy, lists the requirements to wireless network security and wireless network access, requirements to wireless devices, outlines the wireless standards supported by LCBO, ethical guidelines associated with the use of wireless networks in LCBO, discusses the approaches to wireless security policy enforcement and includes key terms and definitions in the end. Network security in general and the security of wireless communications is crucial for LCBO functioning and all employees as well as LCBO guests are obliged to maintain this policy.Purpose and ScopeThe purpose of this policy is to define the requirements to the security of wireless communications that are r equired for ensuring the confidentiality, availability and integrity of sensitive information transmitted in the LCBO network.ApplicabilityThis security policy is applicable to all LCBO employees, LCBO guests, all organizations and individuals using LCBO network or accessing LCBO data.Wireless Network Security RequirementsLCBO network has two zones: demilitarized zone for guests and remote access for organizations, and internal network for LCBO employees. Both users requesting guest access which is available in the demilitarized zone of the LCBO network and users accessing the internal part of the LCBO network should verify that their devices are properly protected against unauthorized access or theft, and should remove any data received from the LCBO network after they have disconnected from the network. If there is a need to store certain documents on the device for further use, this action should be authorized with the support manager on duty.All wireless devices used for accessi ng the internal part of the LCBO network should be first registered and authorized by the Network Security Department (this also involves recording of the devices internal ID and MAC address) and should pass through network security audit every 3 months.Wireless Network Access RequirementsOnly authorized users can have access to any part of the LCBO network. The users receive a specific user role, unique user password and SSID name of the access point (Earle, 2005). None of these data can be disclosed or shared in any other way with other people or stored in an easily accessible place. The users have to change passwords every 2 months basing on the password policy of LCBO. The users should ensure that they have proper anti-virus protection and firewall software installed on their wireless devices before accessing the LCBO network. In case of any questions or uncertainties, it is recommended to refer to LCBO support manager on duty.Wireless Device RequirementsLCBO network maintains a ccess for all 802.11x devices (version a, b/g/n and ac). All wireless communications in the internal LCBO network should be encrypted using at least 256-bit encryption, so the devices used inside the network should support this encryption. All internet browsers used on wireless devices should support SSL encryption and any VPN communications should support IPSec protocol. In the LCBO network, WPA2 AES protection is used, so the wireless devices should support this type of encryption to access internal network.Wireless Standards Supported by the OrganizationLCBO officially supports IEEE 802.11 standard (referred to as Wi-Fi). As for April 2014, LCBO network supports the devices working with 802.11a, 802.11 b/g/n and 802.11 ac standards.Ethical Guidelines Associated with Wireless Networks in the OrganizationIn the context of wireless network communications, the major ethical issues are: the ability of wireless devices to detect location, the use of wireless devices for personal and co rporate needs simultaneously and the ability of wireless devices to connect to outside access points. LCBO will not access or store location information provided by wireless devices as this is unethical to the user, and the same is expected from any employees or guests accessing LCBO network and from organizations accessing LCBO network. Organizations, employees and guests of LCBO should verify that the access point they are connecting to is located within the boundaries of LCBO network. Users, guests and employees are expected to remove any sensitive data from the wireless devices that they might use outside LCBO network and/or use for personal needs; this includes clearing cache, sessions and other information pertaining to LCBO network from the device. LCBO reserves the right to log internal IDs and MAC addresses of wireless devices for security purposes and ensures that these data will be used for security purposes solely and will not be disclosed to anyone outside the Network S ecurity Department.Policy EnforcementThe responsibility for maintaining and enforcing this policy is on the LCBO Network Security Officer and on Network Security Administrators. The users who fail to comply with the requirements of this policy, they might create the risks of exposing sensitive information transmitted inside the LCBO network. Any violations of network security requirements will be logged along with device ID and reported to LCBO management. Failing to comply with this wireless security policy might lead to disciplinary action up to and including terminating the rights to access LCBO network, changing access rights and in the specific cases terminating employment of an individual or breaching business relationships with an organization.Terms and DefinitionsAvailability the accessibility of information at the moment when it is needed and the opportunity to access this information timely and in the required volume (Vacca, 2006).Confidentiality the availability of sens itive information only to those people who have the right to access it (and prevention of access to this information by any other people) (Vacca, 2006).Integrity the accuracy of information in the network along with the trustworthiness and consistency of information (Vacca, 2006).MAC address media access control unique identifier assigned to the network interface (in the context of this policy to the wireless network interface) for communication with the physical layer of the network model (Earle, 2005).Sensitive information proprietary information which should only be available to certain groups of people and should never be disclosed to the public or to unauthorized people (Bensky et al., 2011).Wireless device a device that can connect to other devices in the LCBO network using a wireless technology 802.11x (Bensky et al., 2011). Commonly used wireless devices are laptops, tablets, smartphones, PDAs, etc.

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Assigment 2 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 2

Assigment 2 - Essay Example In regard to the first issue, a party is considered in breach of a contract when a party fails to perform its obligations under the said contract. In the problem, the contract provides that the barge will be delivered in safe working order for the purpose of sea-faring voyages (Clause 4) and that a condition of the agreement is that the barge will be available from 1st January 2006 until 31st December 2008 (Clause 8). Blue is guilty of breach of contract because the barge was only actually ready-to-load on the 3rd of January 2006 in violation of the owner’s promise (Clause 8) that the barge will be ready-to-load from the start of the charter, i.e. the 1st of January. Moreover, Blue is guilty of breach of contract because the barge had to be towed sometime January 2008 (when the contract is still effective) from Oslo to Liverpool due to serious engine failure in violation of Clause 4. Having failed to perform its obligations under the contract, Blue is therefore in breach of co ntract. In regard to the issue of whether Red may exercise the right both to terminate the contract and to claim compensation for past and future losses, the answer depends on whether the terms of the contract violated by Blue is a condition or a warranty. This is because not all contract terms are of equal significance. Some are more important than others. A condition is an essential term of the contract which goes to the root or the heart of the contract while a warranty, on the other hand, is a lesser, subsidiary term of the contract. The distinction between a condition and a warranty is vital in the event of a breach of contract. A breach of a condition enables the party who is not in breach of contract (â€Å"the innocent party†) either to terminate the performance of the contract and obtain damages for any loss suffered as a result the breach or to affirm the contract and recover damages for the breach. A breach of a warranty, on the other hand,